JUNE 1, 1923.
THE LOMA AT SANTA FE
From Painting bv Waher Ufer
The Well of the Maya's Human Sacripice
BY ALMA REED IN THE NEW YORK TIMES
"W/'ITHIN the year the Peabody Mu-
seum of Harvard Lniversity vvill an-
nounce ofíicially the íinding of the Maya
treasure at the bottom of the sacred well
The discover\', although admitíed to
be the most important in the history of
American archaeology, has been a care-
fully guarded secret for over a decade.
Exactly how much iight it uill throw up-
en ene of civilizations mostobscure paths
is a question that must remain unans-
wered untd Piofessor Herbert J. Spinden
and Professor A. M. Tozzer publish
their erudite commentary. For the pres-
ent \ve only know that a quantity of pre-
cious material and an astoundingly vveird
romance has been reclaimed from the ev-
er recedmg past.
But there is the romance that science
p'irsues. and there is the one lived in the
pursuit! And the "unoíficial ' announce-
ment of the recovery of human bones,
gold ornaments and objects of jade, cop-
per and wood from the depth of the sa-
cred well, or the "Cenote de los Sacrifi-
cios, " mvolves a worthy sequel to the
weird story that the worid had forgotten.
During a recent visit to Yucatán 1 lis-
tened to this story as told by the discov-
erer himse'f. He is Edward H. Thomp-
son, former United States Cónsul at Me-
rida, and affectionately known throughout
southeastern México as "Don Eduardo."
I met him m the ruined city of the van-
ished Itzaes, where he has lived formany
years. His big rambling hacienda house
stands almost in the shadow of Chichen-
Itza's marvelous monuments, and the sa-
cred cenote is less than half a mile dis-
"I consider the most important find
made by me in regard to the 'cenote sa-
grado, to be the fact that it was a sacred
well, aud a very sacred one, and actual-
ly a place of sacrifice, as many eminent
scientists either doubled or denied."
As he spoke our "Fortmga, ' or Ford,
reached the end of the Sacred Way, the
ancient macadamized causeway leading
from the base of the huge "Castillo" pyr-
amid for 300 yards. Before us, with
startling abruptness, the sacred cenote
opened its wide, cavernous mouth.
There was an uncanny note m the per-
fect symmetrj and striking contrasts of
this pool of palé and lusterless green wa-
ter. Tall dark trees completely encir-
cled its rim, emphasizing the dazzling
whiteness of its deep perpendicular lime-
stonewalls, with their even and seemingly
sculptured horizontal hnes.
"The aue irspiring aspect of the cen-
ote," continued Don Eduardo, "impressed
me as much as its traditions of human sac-
rifice and offenngs to the gods. For years
I had a growing belief that Bishop Landa,
Father Cogolludo and other Spanish
chromclers, had reported accurately al-
though merely from hearsay, the terrible
religious rites practiced hereuntil the com-
ing of the conquerors. But my own in-
stinct on the cióse association of religious
conceptions of the Mava with physical
nature was a strong factor in my decisión
to search for proof of human sacnftce in
the muddy depth of the cenote. If hu-
man beings were ihrown mto watery
graves to win the favor or to avert the
anger of the deities, 1 reasoned thiswould
be the logical place of their doom. I
had seen the cenote under all conditions
in the flaming sunnse, in the brilliant
noonday, in the silver moonlight, and al-
Ways there was the suggestion of solem-
nity, mystery and tragedy.
He related the traditions recorded by
the Spanish priests — the traditions that
have remained for him to transíate into
histórica! truth. In the days of Chichen-
Itza's glory, and up until the very time of
its dechne under Toltec oppressions, pris-
oners of war and virgins of flawless love-
liness were sacriíiced at the cenote.
From early childhood the maidens had
beencared forwith physical perfection as
a goal. Their spintual traming had mar-
tyrdom for the public good as its ideal.
In times of national calamity, drought or
pestiience, the selected victims were led
in solemn procession down the imposing
stairway of the great pyramid. The sm-
ister beating of the death drum, the high-
pitched flute and the shrill screeching of
whistle announced their march.
Waiting for them at the little shrine
on the brink of the sacred cenote were
the priests, the dignitaries of the state and
throngs of the pious. At a signal in the
ceremony, designed for the deity who
was crediíed with power in the particular
emergency, the devoteesflung down their
most valuable articles of personal adorn-
ment and other art treasures. Then the
white robed priests hurled the human sac-
riflces into the yawnmg water pit, the
maidens having been mercifully drugged
with the sacred ambrosia, balche.
But more merciful than the drug was
the sustaining hope in each maiden s
breast that immortal life insfead of death
lay at the bottom of the cenote. And
the crowd gazing down into the palé
green water eagerly expected at least
one victim to refurn to the surface as an
omen of a favorable year.
The decisión to verify these strange
traditions and to salvage the Maya treas-
ure was taken by Don Eduardo over20
years ago. But he was confronted by
obstacles on all sides. His faith met
with ridicule from the layman and with
discouragement from the scientist. The
scholarly Holmes visiting Chichen-Itza in
Í895. wroíe of the plan-. 'There has
been some talk of explormg he áccumü^
lations from the bottom of this cenote
with the expectation of securing works of
art or other treasures, but the task is a
most formidable one and will require the
erection of strong wmdlassesand efficient
dredging apparatus. It is doubtful if
promised results warrant the outlay nec-
essary to carrymg out the work m a
Don Eduardo agreed with Holmes
that the task was indeed a formidable
one, especially as the money for the erec-
tion of "strong windlasses ' and "efíicient
dredging" was not available. The cen-
ote measures 150 feet in diameter. The
limestone wall drops 65 feet from the
treefringed rim to the surface of the pool.
And beneath 40 feet of water is a mud
bed 35 feet deep. Unable to find the
proper financial support for the expensive
undertaking, Don Eduardo learned the
diver's art. Night after night formonths
he descended in his diving suit, only to
have his mexperience meet wiih accident
and, in many instances, narrowly averted
death. One night his d'ligence was re-
warded by the discovery of human bones
which proved tobethoseof girlsbetween
1 2 and I 6 years of age. This success
sharpened his enthusiasm, and finally, by
sheer forcé of determination, he won the
interest and aid of a wealthy American
whose patronage is linked with some of
America's most significan! archaeologiccí
By 1903 the heavy dredging appar-
atus had been purchased and installed.
Shortly after the work was well under
way, the cranes being operated by hand
power supplied by the Indians. Almost
from the flrst the dredging yielded results,
Quantities of human bones — mostiythose
of young girls were brought to the sur-
face, to sustain the theory of sacrifice.
Gradually, beautiful objects began to
make their appearance m the scooped up
silt. TTie assortment included jade, gold,
copper, ebony, balls of copal, weapons
ornamented with turquoise mosaic and
even fragments of lextües of hitherlo un-
Most important, according to Don Ed-
uardo — an opinión he ventures, however,
as entirely "unofficial" and subject to cor-
rection from the archaeologists — are the
jade platas, beanng glyphs and esotenc
figures upon their highly polishedsurfaces.
These plates, measuring about 3 by 8
inches, are engraved with exquisite art,
and it has been hinted that the designs
will íurnish clues for the posiíive identifi-
cation of the vague Maya divinities.
Among the gold ornaments are elabórate
pendants and richly carved breast shields.
The latler, disks of the purest gold and
the finest workmanship, measure 8 and 9
mches in díamete-.
Don Eduardo teüs how the scientists
who were present at its discovery were
deeply impressed by a beautifully strange
sacrificial knife, about 1 4 ¡nchesin length.
The 8 inch handle is of polished ebony,
carved in the form of two entwined ser-
pents biting a flint blade. This discovery
was made m three sections, one scoop
bringmg up the blade, with a missmg piece
near the point, and the next scoop pro-
ducing the handle. Some days later, to
the intense joy oí the scientists, the little
missing piece rewaided their careful ex-
amination of the mud. Another precious
obiect brought to the surface was the al-
most mystic weapon known as the "Vo-
tive Atlati," or the ceremonial spear
thrower. By the aid of this device it
was possible to send a spear twice as far.
and it thus became an emblem of power,
and as such is pictured in the ancient
sculptures fhrouahout the American conti-
nent. Qyetzalcoatl is depicted m Aztec
art as holdmg one in his claws, and the
emblem is found a!l the way from the Es-
kimo región to Perú, and as far east as
Four of the treasures, which are ador-
nrd with turquoise mosaic, have been de-
scribed in a publication lust issued on this
art among the ancient Mexicans by Pro-
fessor Marshall H. Saville. To complete
his monograph Professor Saville received
permission to describe these articles and
to reproduce them pictonally in his book.
These are the first published pictures of
discovenes made in the sacred cenote.
Two of the objects are merely wooden
fragments which still relam porticns of
turquoise mosaic decoration. In the cen-
ter of one is an irregularly shaped and
thin piece of gold; and from several
wooden teelh, covered wilh the same
kind oí mosaic incrustation, Professor
Saville believes thaí both fragments were
from a jaguar head or mask.
The remaining two are fairly complete
specimens, one being asmallstaff orscep-
ter, and the olher a wooden rattle, hold-
ing a tiny ccpper bell. On bcth cbjecls
bits of mosaic decoraticn re mam.
In descnbing the Mayan rattle Prc-
fessf-r SaMJle claims that it is analogous
to an instrument found in the Mexican
picfures. "In both of the Sahagun man-
uscripts, ' he writes, "that of the Real Pe-
lacio in Madr.d and the one in Florence,
are representatxns cf ihe ceily Xioe To-
tee. In the former manuscnpt is fcur.d
the ñame of the gcd wntten above the
figure, which is translated 'Xipe, lord cf
the ccasfland.' He is an earlh deity,
'our lord the flayed,' fcr he is represented
wearmg loosely about him a human skin.
He was the patrón samt cf the goldsmiths
of the Valley of México, and is said to
have received special homage frcm the
people of the Teotilan distnct, the be-
gmning of the highway of Tabasco. In
the pictures given by Sahagun, and in
other códices, he carried alongstaff which
terminates m a rattle similar to that found
in the cenote Chichen-ltza."
It has been claimed that the solidified
m.asses of copa), used as a sacrificial in-
censé by the Mayas, contained human
hearts as well as jade idols. But these,
more recently discovercd bv Don Edu-
ardo, and not included in the Peabody
Muscum collection, have been found to
endose small India rubber balls, perhaps
the same used in some ceremonial "pelóla"
game held in the greal gymnasium with-
in !ighl of the sacred cenote.
ASSIMILATÍON BY ArCHAEOLOGICAL FiRST Al
BY ALMA REED IN THE NEW YORK TIMES
\X/'" ^^exico solve her greatest nation-
^ al problem by answering her arch-
This high hope, in any event, is in-
spiring the Government's exploration of
Mitla and the ruins o( Monte Alban,
the ancient Zapotecan capital, which
overlooks the modern City of Oaxaca.
The work, underlaken by Manuel F.
Gamio, Directoi of Anthropology, aims
to wrest from Mexico's dead past the
knowledge that will vitalize her future.
It is part of the program which he has
dssigned to make anthropology a leading
factor in his country's development.
With the triple visión of scientist, hu-
manitarian and patriot, Gamio sees Mex-
ico's Indian problem as a living issue, not
merely as a thing of the museum or the
scholany monograph. He would study
the beginnings of the various peoples
within the Mexican Republic, as recorded
bytheir monuments and other vestiges of
pre-Hispanic culture. in orderto gaindeep-
er underslanding of their present needs.
The excavations now under way
among the mounds and vaulted cham-
bers on the heights oí Monte Alban are
revealing significant facts of early Za-
potecan civiiization. The mounds are
said to contain the tombs of hve Kings.
But, what is vastly more important, as
Gamio himself recently pointed out, is the
jight that these excavations are throwing
upon the humble lives being lived today
in the fertile valley below.
As we spoke he was making a pre-
liminary survey of the great courtyard
that crowns (he terraced "white moun-
tain." Around him stood members of
his staff experts in sociology, efhnology,
iinguistics, folklore, economics, geology,
agriculture and other fields of research.
In the group were youths just out of col-
lege and distmguished scientists past mid-
dle age. But all looked toward the tall,
slender Director of Anthropology, who
still in his late thirties, is International
Presiden! of the American School of Ar-
chaeology, with an attitude of reverential
devotion, and all seemed animated by his
tremendous enthusiasm for the big, ccm-
mon purpose that lay beyond their imme-
diate respective endeavors.
"Mexico's task, " explained Gamio, "is
no less than the formation of a coherent
and definite nationality as weW as a true
fatherland. México is not a unit. It is
made up of several units. Our popula-
tion is heterogeneous, not homogeneous,
The different groups of which it is com-
posed have diíferent historie antecedenls
and racial charactenstics. They diííer in
their material and intellectual culture, and
in the very expression of their ideas. I
think I am justiíied insayingthat the pop-
ulation of México is a conglomeralion of
little known regional groups.
"Oaxaca has nothmg in common with
Chihuahua, ñor the tropical jungles of
Chiapas with the mountam gorges of
Guanajualo. México is the linguists
paradise. There are perhaps thirty big
divisions of language in the republic today.
Here in Oaxaca alone there are traces
of fourteen distinct ianguages. Some of
these Ianguages differ bcsically havmg no
more connection structurally than Chínese
or English. The races present striking phy-
sical differences. The Zapotecans, for in -
stance, biologically distinct from the Mayas
ofYucatan. Our purpose is to stimulate ra-
cial approximation, the fusión of culture,
unification of language and the economic
equilibnum of these various groups m order
to attain a true national entity. But first we
musí have a knowledge of racial, cultural
and Imguistic backgrounds. And we are
tryíng to understand the ancient Zapote-
can race, in order that the Zapotecan of
today, with his problems and needs, may
be more mtelligible."
What Gamio is attempting in Oaxaca
he has already accomplished m the Val-
ley of Teotihuacan, where stands the
Pyramid of the Sun, the Cheops of Méx-
ico. In July, 1917, after ten years of
fruitful work among Mexico's archaeolo-
gical sections — a work that proceeded
almost unmterruptedly throughout the
governmental changes and uncertamties
of the penod — Gam.o founded the De-
partment of Anthropology of the De-
partment of Fomento y Agricultura and
at once began the regional study of the
Teotihuacan \''alley. His program call-
ed for a complete survey of the popu-
lation, a study of the present physical
conditions of the terntory and of the as-
pects of civilization which it presented
His excavations in the ancient archae-
ological City of Teotihuacan led to the dis-
covery of the famous Temple of Quet-
zalcoatl, or the Citadel. He made ex-
haustive studies of the property, natural
and artificial production, and habitability
of the entire valley, and in a bnlliant work,
entitled "La Población del Valle de
Teotihuacan," was able authoritatively
to indícate last year the most feasi-
ble means for the physical, intellectual,
social and econcmic development of the
Teotihuacan Indians. Already, it is
claiined, conditions of life among these
people are beginnmg to reflect marked
impiovement There are rapidly matur-
ing plans for the revival of ancient indus-
tries in the región, adapted to present
commercial requirements and aided by
modern, labor saving methods. With
the prospect of the manufacture of cera-
mies and pottery after archaeological de
signs. the weaving of textiles and the pro-
duction of adobes, bricks. tiles and other
clay objects, there looms a new pericdof
prosperity for Teotihuacan.
Gamio insists that a very large portion
of Mexico's population is still leading an
archaeological life and that his country s
failure to reach its highest development
has been due to thedisregard of this fun-
damental fact by the "ruling clasíes."'
"We must reckon," hemainlains,"with
the illogical, foggy mode of fhought
characteristic of Indian tribes who still
live in the neolilhic age, like the Seriand
the Papago of the north, the Maya of
the región of Quintana Roo and several
other groups m the tensof thousands; and
with the pre-Hispanic concepts of millions
of Indians and Mestizos who retain in
their stagnant, silent and relircd existence
the most profuse, varied and interesting
folklore to be found on the conlment."
The whole problem, the Director of
Anthropology points out. has been com-
plicated by the sudden arrestmg of ar-
chaeological culture withcut the provisión
of any substitute except slavery. The
governmental chaos that has stained lor.g
stretches of Mexican histcry is, accord:ng
to Gamio, merely the inevitable result of
"the making by governing minorities of
modern laws to their own liking and ad-
equatc to their own needs, and expecting
a backward Indian civilizafion to adjust
itself all at once to these advanced lawf,
leaping across four centurics."
In commenting upon theignorance that
had so long existed in Mexico's ofíicial
circles regarding the Indian and his prob-
lems, Gamio relates how he once went
to President Carranza for permissicn to
inaugúrate some work "of vital importance
to the Indians." * "But, my dear
boy," replied Don Venustiano with pater-
nal gravity, "what are you talking about>
We have no Indians! " "Of course we
haven't in these norlhern states where you
have lived, " answered Gamio, who then
proceeded to enüghten the "First Chief "
upon the most sericus problem cf hisgov-
If the golden hope that Gamio is hold-
ing out to his naticn beccmes a reality, it
will be primaiily becanse of the develop-
ment of Mexico's embryolic things. His
surveyof thelndianpopulation, which will
extend gradually over the whole repub-
lic, will deftnitely ascertain conditions and
needs. Naturally, these economic needs
will diífer as geographical conditions and
biologic types difter. In one section the
remedy for distress may be catite; in an
other crops; in still another, facilities for
arts and crafts. In his ultímate aim of
co-ordinating the various cultures to the
end of a strengthened nationalism he !s
searching for tribal similaiities — for like-
nesses upon which to build thesolid struc-
ture of common interest. His plan calis
for the study of such considerat.ons as
what clothes the Indians wear, their social
customs, whether or not they make use
of the pueblo organization, what expres-
sion of culture they give through art. In
other words, he is trying to find the rudi-
ments that are truly, essentially Mexican,
which may be adapted to the age and,
at the same time, answer the aspiraticns
It was in h;s boyhood, while workmg
on his father's hacienda in southeastern
México, that Gamio's visicn of national
unily came to him in a very dramalic way.
Sitting one day by a stream in the mídst
of a semi tropical forest, he saw a naked
Indian pass by in a canee. Gamio called
to him in Spanish. Bnt the Indian did
not make the slightest response. Gamio
called again, but the Indian's face re-
mained perfectly stolid. With a boy's
persistency, he shouled at the top of his
voice, yet the Indian remained motion-
less. At last, almost frantically, Gamio
called in the Indian dialect of the place,
and he received an immediate answer.
Curiousabout thisstrangeconduct, Ga-
mio. pleading in the dialect, finally drew
from the Indian the reason for hissilence.
He learned that his companion spokeflu-
ent Spanish, but that he had taken a sol-
emn oath never to use the longue of the
conqueror again. Ae reason he gave the
brutal freatment he had received from his
Spanish speaking employers in one of the
larger coast cities. In addition, he had
withdrawn in defiant hatred into the re-
cesses of the junglein order lo forget civ-
ilization and to livelhe most primitiveÜfe
This glimpse into the Indian soul, with
its burning consciousness of wrong under
a mask of passiveness. has been Gamio's
inspiration through his years of sludy and
labor, as it is today on the verge of the
realizaficns of his hopes.
It is this soul — as it was at the height
of its freedcm, and before it shrank in
íorrow and despaír benealh cenlunes
of oppression^ — that Gamio secks in the
ruins of Mente Alban. It is the soul,
he maintains, ihat México must fan into
normal expression before it can reach its
highest naticnal destiny.
GiFTS, Bequests and Awards i
Pulitzer Prizes Announced.
The 1923 awards of the Pulitzer pri-
zes in journalism and letters and of the
traveling scholarships ofíercd annually have
been announced by the advisory board
of the Cclumbia School of Journalism.
Alva Johnston, of the New York
Times, was awarded the $1,000 prize
for the best example of a reporter's work
during the year; William Alien White,
editor of the Gazelte, Emporia, Kansas,
$5 00 for the best editorial; and the Mem-
phis Commercial Appeal, Memphis,
Tenn., the $500 go!d medal for the most
disinterested and meritoricus public ser-
vice rendered by a newspaper.
The judges selected "One of Ours,'
by Willa Cather, for the $1,000 prize
for the American novel published dunng
the year which presented the wholescme
atmosphere of American life, and the
highest standard of American manners
Charles Warren was given the $2,000
for the best book on the history of the
United States for his book "The Supreme
Court in United States History. " The
$ 1 ,000 prize in biography was awarded
to "The Life and Letters of Walfer H,
Page," Burton H. Kendrick, and the
$ 1 ,000 pnze for the original play per-
formed in New York which best repre-
sented the educational valué and power of
the síage in raising the standard of good
moráis, good taste and good manners, w as
awarded to "Icebound, " by Owen Davis.
Edna St. Vincent Millay was named
the winner of the $ 1 ,000 prize for the
best volume of verse published during the
year by an American author.
Three awards of travelmg scholarships
valued at $1,500 each, offered to grad-
uates of the Columbia School of Journal-
ism who pafsed their examinations with
the highest honor and otherwise were
found most deserving, to permit each to
spend a year m Europe studying the so-
cial, political and moral conditions of the
people and the character and prmciple of
the European press, were awarded to
Geneva Bertha Seybold, Topeka, Kans.;
Lee Mills Mernman, Chicago: Roswell
Sessons Britton, Hoochow, China. Al-
ternates for this award were: Paul Fried-
enchson, Clinton, lowa; Charles Ruggles
Smith, Cambridge, Mass., and Josephine
Lulu Chase, Bakersfield, Calif.
Annual scholarship valued at $1,500
to the student of music in America
deemed the most talented and deserving
so that he may continué h's studies with
the advantage of Europcan instruction,
was awarded to Winter Watts, Brook-
lyn, N, Y., for a suite for orchestra entit-
led "Etchings," and for a dramatic bai-
lad for voice a^d orchestra entitled "The
Henry Henscfie, Chicago, a student
in the National Academy of Design
Schools, was awarded an annual scholar-
ship valued at $1,500, offered to theart
student in America should he be certified
by the National Academy of Design
with which the Society of American Ar-
lists has been merged, as the most prom-
¡sing and deserving.
No awards were made in the journal-
ism group of the $ 1 ,000 prize offered
for the best history of the services ren-
dered tothe publicby the American press
during the preceding year and the $500
pnze offered for best cartoon published
m the United States dunng the year.
The Memphis Commercial Appeal
was given the $300 medal for "its cour-
ageous attitude in the publication of car-
toons and the handling of news in refer-
ence to the Ku Klux Klan," the announce-
The editorial which won the award
for Wiiliam Alien White was entitled
"To an Anxious Friend." and appeared
in the Empona Gazette, July 21, 1922.
The jury found that the editorial excelled
m clearness of style: sounu reasoning and
its power to influence public opinión in
the right direction.
Mr. Johnston, selecled for the $1 ,000
pnze for the best sample of reporters
work, won the award with his reports of
the proceedings of the convention of the
American Association fcr tne Advance-
ment of Science, held in Cambridge,
Mass., December 27 to 30, 1922.
The works of Edna St. Vincent Mil-
lay, which won for her the $ 1 ,000
award for the best volume of verse, in-
clude the "Bailad of the Harp Weaver,"
"A Few Figs from Thistles," eight
poems m "American Poetry" and a
volume entitled "A Miscellany."
^Ir. Watts, awarded the music schol-
ship, is 37 years oíd and a gradúate of
the Inslitute of Musical Art. He has
studied painting and architecture as well
as music and has wntten and conducted
incidental music for several plays. The
jury which selected him was compcsed
of Prof. Daniel Gregory Masen, Prcf.
Walter Henry Hall and Frank Dam-
rosch,and stated that he has had instruc-
tion in organ and voice, both in America
and Italy, and has made an extensive stu-
dy of composition and has taught theory.
The awards originally were reccm'
mended by juries composed of three
members and were formally adopted by
the advisory board of the Columbia
School of Journalism.
The prizes will be pre«ented in con-
nection with the commencemenl exer-
cises at Columbia Lniversity.
SCIENCE AND RESEARCH
Age of the Piltdown Man.
After microscopic examination of the
Piltdown jaw and numerous specimensof
jaws of apes and of early man, Dr. Ales
Hrdlicka has come to the conclusión that
the Piltdown jaw is much older than the
skull found near it and to which it had
been supposed to belong. He places
the Piltdown jaw much older than the
Heidelberg jaw or that of any other Eu-
ropean cave man. He found that the
Piltdown man did not connect with any
of the living forms of anthropoíd ape.
Dr. Hrdlicka intímales that man may
have evolved altogether in western Eu-
rope mstead of Central Asia.
Colorado Historical and Natural History Society.
Considerable work of note was accom-
plished dunng the biennium covered by
the published report of the State Histori-
cal and Natural History Society of Col-
orado. The report asks for an annual
appropnation from the state of $25,000,
of which about $1 5,000 is to be for sal-
aries of the staff and $5,000 for archaeo-
logical research. J. A. Jeancon, curator
of archaeology and research, formerly a
residen! of Santa Fe, makes a brief sur-
vey of the work in Archuleta county,
Colorado, of which he had charge. A
special plea is made for more generous
m;ans for pjbhcation of historical mate-
rial accumulated. The Society has a
membership of 650 and m addition to
the state appropnation reports receipts,
mostly from membership dues, of more
Carnegie Institution Report.
The report of the president of the Car-
negie institution for 1922, emphasizes
the work of publication which included
24 volumes of 6605 pagf s printed at a
cost of $95,000. During the past year
he Institution has attempted to make
orne of the refults of recent researches
available to invrsiigators and intereslcd
citizens through the médium of carefully
prepared and illustrated lectures. These
included Dr. S. G. Morley's lecture on
recent discoveries in the field of early
American archaeology in Guatemala.
Dr. J. N. Rose marked the completion
of a monograph on the cactus group by
presenting the general results secured in
this study of adaptation of a group of
plants to the peculiar conditions of semi-
arid regions in the western hemisphere.
The president states incidentally: "It is
also of much importance to us in the near
future to expand considerably our pro-
gram of studies in the field of Middle
American Archaeology." In the past
year $19,500 were available fcrarchae-
ological work out of a total of more than
$1,509,920 granted for research work.
The total receipts for the year, however,
were only $1,345,530, and the report
says: "In every phase of research under-
taken, either directly by the Institution or
jointly with other organizations, it would
be possible to spend with profit consider-
able sums beyond those now available."
The report prints a full page engravmg
of the late Dr. Alfred Goldsborough
Mayor, director of the Department of
Marine Biology, to whcm, as well asto
Professor J. C. Kapteyn, Research As-
sociate in Astronomy, who died June 1 8,
1922, tribute is paid In Memonam.
Santa Fe Society:
A. Gusdorf, John K. Stauffer, El
Paso Public Library, Geo. H. Robinscn,
Miss Rose Dougan, R. D. Johnson.
New México Society:
G. J. Waller, John H. D. Blanke,
Geo. T. Colé, Mrs. Anna F. Johnson,
H. O. Bursum, E. A. P. Newcomb, Mrs.
J. F. Pearce, Robert M. Zingg, Mrs.
E. Caesar, Mrs. C. E. Perkins, C. J.
Notable Gift to San Diego Museum
From the San Diego Union of May 16.
I "WO gifts, the most important ever re-
ceived by the San Diego Museum,
were presented to the directors of the or-
ganization yesterday by Mr. and Mrs. U.
S. Grant, Jr. One of the gifts was the
library of Gen. U. S. Grant, given to the
general by the citizens of Boston, and
the other was a portrait of President
Grant, painted by Henry Ulke, during
the last year of Grants term'
Director Edgar L. Hewett presiding,
announced the presentation of the two
gifts to the board of directors and called
for recommendations from the committees
of the board which had had the dona-
tions under consideration.
The library committee, composed of
Erskine J. Campbell, chairman, Hanna
Vogdes Prentice, Edward L. Hardy,
Henry P. Newman and Anna M. \\ .
Connell, through its chairman, made the
follovv'ing report and recommendations:
"The library committee begs leave to
submit the following report upon the li-
brary presented to the museum by L. S.
"This library was presented to Gen.
Grant by the citizens of Boston in the
year 1866. It comprises approximately
1200 volumes, embracing the works of
hislory, biography. science, essays, poetry
and fiction without which no importanl
library is complete, in editions of the iin-
est bindingsand illustrations known tothe
art of bookmaking. It is a collection of
ihe world's classics of the highest literary
and artistic valué. When to this is added
the consideration of its having been the li-
brary of the great general and president,
it becomes a priceless possession for this
Museum and for the people of San Di-
"\our committee, therefore, recom-
mends that in accepting this munificent
gift the board of directors declare ihe
donor, Mr. Grant, a patrón of the San
Diego Museum with all the privileges of
membership for life in the institution."
Miss Aiice Lee, who, with A. S,
Bridges, Lyman J. Gage, John Wilüam
Mitchell and Ernest E. White composes
the art committee, speaking for that body
"The committee on the art department
herewith submits its report and recommen-
dations with reference to the portrait pre-
sented to the Museum by Mrs. L. S.
"This portrait cf President Grant by
one of the foremost pcrtrait pamters of
the time, Henry Llke. was painted in
1876, the last year of the presidenta oc-
cupancy of the White House. It has the
distinction of being the only portrait for
which Gen, Grant sat while he was pres-
ident. It repreícnts h m m the full ma-
turity of his life and at the he'ght of his
"The portrait was purchased by Mrs.
U. S. Grant, Jr., from the estáte of the
arlist and has since remamed in her pcs-
session. It has long becn the intenlion
of Mrs. Grant to presexit ihis tocur Mu-
seum, and the art committee takes this
occasion to congratúlate the cííicers upen
the addition of this splendid portrait to
the valuable possessicns which it holds in
trust for the pecple cf ihis cily.
"Your committee reccnrmends that in
recognilicn of this priceless gift thebcard
of directers declare Mrs. Grant a patrcn
of the San Diego Museum and confer
upon her all the privileges of life mem-
bership in the institution."
VOL. XIV. JUNE 1.1923. NO. 11.
PAUL A. F. WALTER, Editor.
Piiblished by the Museum of New México
and the School of American Research
A Semi-Monthly Review of the Arts ajiii
Sciences in ihe American Southwest.
Scnt free to Members of t)ie New Mcxico
Archaeological Societ> and the Santa l-e
Society of the Archaeological
Acceptance for mailing at special rate of
postage provicled for in Section 1103,
Act of October 3, 1917, authorizetJ
Tuly 16, 1918.
George W. Marston in a brief talk
congratulating the Museum and the peo-
pie of San Diego on the acquisilion of a
library of such vast importance to the
American peopleand fehcitating Mr. and
Mrs, Grant upon their generous thcught
in donating these possessions to the Mu-
seum, moved the following resolution:
"That in recognilion of their gifts to
the San Diego Museum, Mr. and Mrs.
Uiysses S. Grant, Jr., be declared patrons
of the San Diego Museum with all the
privileges of the institulion for hfe."
Mr. Marston referred vvith greatfeeling
to the part Mr. Grant has played in the
life of San Diego and spoke of this occa-
sion as an effort to express the apprecia-
lion of every one for Mr. and Mrs.
Russell C. Alien, chairman of the
board of the scientific library, in a brief
speech of congratulation, seconded Mr.
Marston's resolution. The vote in favor
of the resolution was unanimous
in response to the insistent demand,
Mr. Grant responded wifh a fhort speech
expressing on behalf of himself and Mrs.
Grant their pleasurr in transferring to the
Museum of science and art the treasures
which they have felt for a long time
should belong to the people.
With the difíidence that was charac-
teristic of his great father, Mr. Grant
spoke of the gifts which he and Mrs.
Grant were making as being very pre-
cious to them and referred to their deep
gratilude that such a worthy place was
being prepared for their care and use.
He gave an account of the portrait
which Mrs. Grant had purchased from
the estáte of the artist with herown funds.
In closing Mr. Grant expressed the ex-
pectation that the development of the
Museum was destined to beeven greater
than that of the city of San Diego
Mrs. Grant then gave to the officers
of the Museum a memorándum of articles
scarcely less valuable than those just pre-
sented. The articleswere gifts from the
Mikado of Japan, and from other sources
equally eminent. These gifts will be
transferred to the Museum at some time
jn the future.
Director Hewctt referred to the occa-
sion as one which had been carried out
in the spirit that would have been most
acceptable to the quiet, modest presidenl
whc had taught the American people
that great achievement and great humil-
ity may go hand in hand, and upon whom
they had conferred every honor within
their power. He referred to the distinc-
tions just conferred upon Mr. and Mrs.
Grant as of small importance to them, but
of immense importance to the institution
which was being built for the people of
San Diego, for the reason that it would
forever link with its early developments
ñames which through all the future the
people of San Diego would be proud to
claim as among their citizens while the
city was laying the foundations for its fu-
ture life and culture.
Attention was called to some of the
special treasures of the library, works that
thousands look back upon as having fur-
nished the inspiration to the sludy of his-
tory, science and art. Among those par-
ticularly pointed out were the sets of Au-
dubon's "Birds of North America" and
"Qyadrupeds of North America, " con-
taining the famous hand-colored piales
which now place them beyond pnce;
the works of all the statesmen of the ear-
ly years of the regublic, such as Hamil
ton, Jefferson, Madison, Adams and
Franklin: all of the world's greatest his-
tories. Motley, Hallam, Macauley, Carl-
yle, Hume and Grote; the great bio-
graphies of Napoleón, Wellmgton and
most of the famous men of modern and
ancient times; the works of the leading
es8ayists on history, politics, art and
science; complete sets of the great nove-
lists and poets of all time; and in short
the classics that go to make up a great
library of the world's bestliterature.
One of the particular treasures of the
colleclion is the Bible on vvhich President
Grant took the oath of office, in the front
part of which is pasted the autographed
letter of the Chief Justice of the United
States presenting the book to Mrs. Grant
on the morning after the inauguration.
By request, Dr. H. B. Bard read the
1 2 I st psalm which, according to the let-
ter of Chief Justice Chase, was the pas-
sage of the book where the lips of Pres-
ident Grant pressed the book.
The board room in the California
building, it was announced, will be kept
open every aftemoon so that San Die-
gans and visitors may see the library and
The Galleries in May.
The exhibits in the Museum galleries
during May took a wide range. In add-
ition to many of the pictures owned by
ihe museum, Santa Fe artisls contnbuted
cf their new and their older work.
Miss Olive Rush filled an alcove with
her paintings, the largest exhibit she has
had as yet in the Museum. One is im-
pressed with the versatility of her genius.
Unique is a panel in fresco, "Little Nav-
ajo", painted on a tile by a method she
has originated and which yields most
satisfactory results. Her oils clearly
show a transition from academic days to
modernism. "The Pasteiiist ' and "In-
dian Children at San Xavier" are hne
examples of Miss Rush's earlier days.
while "Pecos, Where Men of Oíd
Build," and "The Mountain" show the
influence of Santa Fe environment and
associations. Lovely are "The Mother '.
and "Arabesque." More bnlliant in co-
lor 18 the landscape "Peach Blossoms," a
sprmgtime scene in oíd Santa Fe. Miss
Rush is equally as happy in her water
colors, "Hillside in New México ' being
an especially good example. Stnking is
a large batik "The Capture" and most
ambitious"Food Bearers to the Dancers"
a symbolic interpretaticn of anincident in
the Shalako Dance. Interesting is ihe
contrast of treatment in another interpre-
tation of the Shalako Dance by Gus-
tave Baumann, which is given the place
of honor in the alcove opposite. The
latter is a puré decoration in subdued
tones and as poetic as it is altogether
lovely in conception and e.xecuticn.
Mr. Baumann exhibits m the same alcove
a number of his famous color wood
block prints, including his latest, "The
Green Gate." Intfrestmg is the series of
prints showing the successive stages or a
color print. B. J. O, Nordfeldt is given
several a'coves, one to his paintings, the
latest from his brush, and parts of two
olhers for a display of hisetchings. The
latter collection is of special significance
for it covers his work from early days in
New York and San Francisco to the
prints produced in Santa Fe. Most vis-
itors express preference for the beauly cf
the early work, but artists are emphatic
in their admiraticn of the vigor and more
untrammeled expression of the Santa Fe
etchings. The paintings are in Nord-
feldt s flnest modern manner and include
large portrait grcups, landscapes, ar.d such
somber canvasses as "The Penitentes." a
representalicn of the Penitente Golgolha.
Somehovv, Nordfeldt succeeds in trans-
ferring to canvas something of ihe «piril
of the Pueblo ceremonial in his "Tablita
Dance," although it vvould be difílcuU to
explain just how. In the adjoining al-
cove Joseph G. Bakos exhibits his matur-
er work which is evidence that "he has
arrived" in an artistic way. Hepaintsm
the modern way and, like Nordfeldt, ap-
plies his pigments flat. Thus also F. G.
Applegale, whose work is given the next
alcove. Mr. Applegate has imaginalion,
and there is a reminder of Nicholas Roe-
rich and symbolism in his pictures which,
too, deal wilh New México landscape
and hfe. Dolores Lietze gives the Mu-
seum the first exhibit of her paintings.
She IS striving at an artistic interpretation
of New México that will no doubt place
her in the front ranks of the women paint-
ers oí the Southwest. It detracls noth-
ing fromthe interest in her pitcures, some
artist íticklers to the contrary notwith-
standing, that she gives her painfingsmel-
lifluous Spanish tilles that place the spec-
talor en rapport wilh her mocd and
theme. Portraits that are rugged, still
Hfe which is unusual in its treafment and
landscape indicate thewiderange ofMiss
Lieíze's ambition, Olaf Emblem exhib-
its a number of highly colored, sunny
landscapes of the Southwest that fairly
scintillate. Altogether, the May exhib-
its would do credit to any gallery even in
the large art centers. In fact, exhibits
by such a group as Nordfeldt, Bakos,
Applegate, Baumann, and the others
would be deemed highlysignificant of the
trend of modern art.
IT IS WRITTEN
Oíd Santa Fe and Rcundabcut.
It is some years now that the hrst
edition of "Oíd Santa Fe and Rounda-
bout" set a standard for railroad publi-
city that many other folders and bcoklets
since then have sought to attain. It was
the idea of the late F.. P. Ripley, presi-
dent of the A. T. and S. F., that rail-
road publicity should be on an mtensive
scale and localized as much as possible.
It was at his suggestion that Colonel
Ralph E. Twitchell and the writer plan-
ed the first edition of "Oíd Santa Fe and
Roundabout." And it proved so íuc-
cessful that it has been printed m manjr
editions and by the tens of thousands of
copies. In the latest edition just from
press, Dr. Charles F. Lummis, the mas-
ter publicist of the Southwest, wntes the
story, while the splendid pictures are from
photographs by local artists. The forly
page folder is beautifully printed and
most altractive in its embellisbments,
makeup and typography. A good out-
line map of Santa Fe and vicinify is the
centerpiece around which are grouped
nine charming photographs of life and
scenes in forest, mountain and desert.
The text of Dr. Lummis has literary
quality which lifts it above ordinary pub-
licity and helps to make "Oíd Santa Fe
and Roundabout" about the finest kind
of publicity which can be given a com-
Another Play by Mts. Bloom.
With the historie hegira of the Piro
and Tampiro people from the Salme
pueblos in the Manzanos before 1 680,
as the background, Mrs. Lansmg Bloom
has written a stirring tragedy in ihree
acts. The scene is laid at Abo whose
mission is still a noteworlhy sight some
distance from the Abo HighwayinNew
México. The drama opens in the Caci-
que's house, "Running Stream" wife of
the cacique, first conversing wilh her
youngest daughter and then wilh "White
Flower" the heroine, whose wedding is
to take place in a few days to "Gray
Wolf," the son of the war captain.
The dialogue reveáis the fear which has
taken possession of the people of the
pueblo who have been harrassed by the
Apaches, "The Red Death." The cli-
max of the first act comes when "White
Flower" is carried into captivity by an
Apache. In the second act messengers
announce that the Tampiros have aban-
doned their great pueblo of Tabira, or
belter known, although erroneously, as
Gran Quivera. "White Flower " returns
bereft of reason. She has escaped the
Red Death but every effort to restore
her mind proves unavailing. The
people of Abo also decide to leave
their home, thus making it one of the
"Cities that Died of Fear. ' "White
Flower" momentarily regaining her rea-
son, refuses to go and "Gray Wolf " re-
mains with her. She slays herself fall-
ing dead into his arms. The third
brief act is a batt[e scene in which Gray
Wolf kills ruthlessly until an Apaches
tomahawk feils him and he expires with
both arms outstretched to the sky cryíng
out in his last agony; "While Flower,
wait !" The author's intímate know-
ledge of Pueblo custom and thought,
her vivid visualization of local color,
knowledge of dramatic technique and
Valúes, together wilh the tenseness of the
theme, have resulled in an artistically
rounded piece of work, as lofty as a
Greek tragedy in its directness and inevi-
tability. The only fault, if any, is in the
harshness of the play's title "The Ways
of Extermination". It is hoped that the
play can be given in the Museum audi-
torium during the Fiesta.
A Prilgrimage tí Taos.
The North American number of The
World Traveler, publishes an illustrated
article by Julia CrisweII under the head-
ing: "A Pilgrimage to Taos. " It v/as
during th^ San Gerónimo Fiesta that the
writer visited the pueblo and her de-
scription is coloful and ively.
"The International Studio'' for May.
More superbly illusirated even than
previous numbers the May issue of "The
International Studio" is a delight to the
eye. The reproductions in color, in lint
and in black or white, represent the high-
est as yet achieved in process print. Eight
of the prize winners at the annual exhibit
of The National Academy of Design are
printed on special heavy paperadmirably
visualizing the gradations of shadow and
the draftsmanship even though lacking
the necromancy of color. Theyare"The
Expulsión," by Eugene Francis Savage,
awarded theThomas B. Clarke prize and
the Saltu? medal; "Flemish Tapestry,"
by Dinez Carlsen, given the Hallgarten
$200 prize; "Blue and Silver," by Jean
McLane, awarded the !saac N. May-
nard $100 prize; "BytheUpper Lock,"
by John F. Folinsbee, bestowed the Hall-
garten $300 prize; "A Naturalist," by
Fred Nagler, given the Hallgarten $ 1 00
prize; "vSnow and Colder," by G. Glenn
Newell, which received the Speyer Me-
morial pnze; "Early Winter," by Paul
King, the winner of the Altman $ 1 000
prize for landscapes; "Mid Winter," by
Hobart Nichols, recipient of the Altman
$100 prize for landrcapes. "Artin Mis-
souri s Capítol," reproduces the series of
histoncal muráis, including that of "At-
tack on the Village of St. Louis by the
Indians," by O. E. Berninghaus of the
Taos Society. "Japan's Color Print Re-
vival' is accompanied by íeveral fxcei-
lent reproductions on special paper. The
text takes a wide range as do the pie-
tures and maintains the interest and high
standard which ihis attractive magazine
has set for itself.
*'.Asia" for June.
Archaeological theme? are again prom-
inent in this number of "Asia," the cover
itself being "after an Egyptian Grave
Stele" in the Metropolitan Museum of
Art. "The Third Asiatic Expedition"
is a continuation of the running account
of the American IMuseum by Roy Chap-
man Andrews. Dr. Charles Breasted,
of the Archaeological Institute of Ameri-
ca, writes under the title "Over the
Threshold of Tut-ankh-Amen's Tcn:b."
The magazine is beaulifully illuílratcd.
The June issue of "Poetry" is a lyric
number and presents the work of some
thirty writers. Whether due to thefem-
porary new editorship or the universali-
ty of the themes, there is an absence of
the local color which has been a charac-
tenstic ot "Poetry." There have been
but few issues in the past three oí more
years ihat did not, for instance, publish
some lines that were steeped in the spirit
and atmosphere of the Southwest. True,
there are verses by Alfred Kreymborg
entitled "Italian Stream;" a "Bretón
Song" by Abbie Huston Evans; and
"Japanese Brush Strokes " by Jun Fujita,
but they all seem remote from the pulsing
life of America generally reflected in
"Poetry. " There is a scathing criticism
of Witter Bynner's "A Book of Plays '
by Cloyd Head, who says among other
things: "These plays are neither for the
mind ñor hearl; they are for the nerves.
They are not dramas; they are not litera-
ture. There is no reality in them "
The most ambitious poem m the issue is
by "H. D. ' under the title of "Thetis,"
but it too is lacking in those things which
have made "Poetry" notable among the
host of mmor publications devoted to verse.
"That the present trend is away from
unrhymed and unmetrical verse cannot
be denied," says one writer, Jessica Nel-
son North, in this issue. She continúes:
"As though the gift of utter freedom had
been too bewildering, the herd of poets
begins to seek some voluntary impnson-
ment." "The cause of the New Poetry
is dead," she says. "It died peacefully
for lack of adversaries, though there sur-
vives the occasional Bryan to give it
posthumous publicity." And as proof
one might cite this issue of "Poetry."
Sharps return from Egypt.
Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Sharp have reiur-
ned from a Mediterranean tour which
included Egypt. Mr. Sharp has taken
possession of his home and studio at Taos
for the summer.
Ufers in Taos again.
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Ufer are at home
again at Taos after a wmter spent in
New York and Chicago.
Blumenschein Resumes Taos Residence.
E. L. Blumenschein aiter a winter in
his home in Brooklyn N. Y., is again at
Taos. Mrs. Blumenschein and daughfer
will arrive as soon as the latter has fin-
ished her school term m the east.
Death of Eminent Research W:rkers.
Dr. John Venn, president of Caius
College, Cambridge, Eng., who gamed
renown in archaeological research work,
died last month at the age of 89 years.
Dr. Charles Emmanuel Forsyth Major,
F. R. S., famous as a paleontologist,
died recently in his 79th year. Ernest
Watson Vredenburg, known for his work
on the paleontology of India, died, aged
53 years. Frederick William Haimer,
aged 89 years, died just after complet-
ing the last píate for his "Monograph of
the British Pliocene Molluska, which
has been in process of publication sincc
1914 by the Paleontographical Society.
The deceased was the father of the direr-
tor of the Brit sh Museum.
MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES
Appointed Director of Museum and Library,
Professor T. H. Pardo de Tavera of
the University of the Philippines has been
appointed director of the Philippine Li-
brary and Museum.